While the website itself acts as a database and blog of developments in Aviation Law, this page is dedicated to commentary on such developments by our Editors. This page was launched in September 2013 and we are excited to see it grow!
Comment by Joseph Wheeler, IALPG: Asia Pacific Aviation Liability
Joseph has kindly allowed his review of the recent Asia Pacific Aviation Liability event in February 2016 to be reproduced here.
This inaugural event, jointly organised by IALPG and Aeropodium and hosted by Maurice Blackburn Lawyers in Sydney, provided a forum for the exchange of ideas, analysis of novel issues going forward, and for all attendees to get an appreciation of how and why aviation liability in respect of particularly recreational remotely piloted aircraft, is something that requires both policymaker, and community attention in Australia and further afield through Asia Pacific.
The myriad issues which emerge given the easy misuse and dangerous applications of remotely piloted aircraft are readily moderated by the fact that Australian safety regulators, and now more recently, many other states, are recognising the real level of risk carried by quickly developing technology.
Unlike model and radio controlled aircraft, which are notoriously difficult to learn how to fly, and have a well-established, historically responsible, and organised community of participants, remotely piloted recreational and aircraft come straight out of the box with exceptionally good stability controls, a variety of privacy-challenging features, and are thus affordable and accessible to those with diminished responsibility, children, and those who would purposefully (and successfully) use them for malicious or criminal purposes.
The seminar heard about recent statistics which put laser attacks on pilots as the number two cause for pilot incapacitation events in Australia in respect of high-capacity air transport operations. It is only with comprehensive federal, state and local level policy consideration that these fun but potentially dangerous aircraft will not join that list.
Presentations by Michael Nas, and Aidan Bruford, presented some surprising, but perhaps sobering realities in respect of drone misuse, and their frailties. For example Mr Nas presented statistics recently taken from the United States, that suggested the majority of incidents which could cause injury with drones happened above 400 feet above ground level. Four hundred feet is the regulated ceiling of unmanned aerial vehicles under Australia’s current regulations. It is the same case in the United States.
Furthermore, Mr Bruford from the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development showed a YouTube video wherein a teenage boy demonstrated how he could use his iPad to assume third-party control of an operational drone, and disable it. The liability consequences of these matters are frightening, and laws which purport to restrict flight to certain altitudes, away from crowds, or even prevent flight in public spaces can only prevent misuse in a fraction of potential instances.
What is needed is more pervasive control and education, together with a different attitude towards remotely piloted aircraft from a variety of perspectives. For example, laser pointers are restricted imports in Australia, depending on their power. This recognition of their ability to be used as weapons, and the fact that much of the more “dangerous” hardware is available off the shelf as an import from other nations, goes some way to mitigating the risks of non–hobbyists taking to the skies with aircraft more powerful than their capability or responsibility level.
Additionally, the airworthiness standards issue in relation to these aircraft is a difficult, though not insurmountable challenge. In the defence realm, Wing Commander Andrew Bannister discussed how a risk framework was developed in order to inform various aspects of airworthiness. It is this outcome-oriented approach which may well be a key, if not the key, to ensuring the enormous diversity of remotely piloted aircraft are able to conform to a suitably reliable standard of airworthiness.
The problems of evidence in respect of drones that crash, causing injury or death, and the question of identifying the operator for the purposes of Australian compensation legislation for damage by aircraft are also difficult but not impossible to resolve. The FAA registration system, although arguably only regulating the already-compliant, demonstrates how operators themselves can and should be monitored by the overarching national airspace regulator, at least for the purpose of disseminating information/education material, and advice or counselling.
In fact, as CASA has a legislated mandate to foster education about the safe use of aviation, not just within the aviation industry, but within the community as a whole, it is uncertain why a registration system is not more broadly lauded locally as a good step forward. Certainly, as raised in the context of the seminar this week, the Australian government’s red tape reduction policy applies to even this area, such that more prescriptive regulation will only be considered if absolutely necessary. That is admirable, and forces Australians and the world to look outside black letter law to other ways of modifying and controlling behaviours which present a danger in the air and on the ground.
The seminar was a small step forward to making the conversation in respect of controlling the negative consequences of recreational remotely piloted aircraft use better appreciated for why it is important. This is certainly not, given our “corporate knowledge” of the adverse consequences of aviation such as fatal accidents, a discussion we should be having in the aftermath of a preventable disaster.
Our day to day focus, and certainly the focus of IALPG, is on aviation law, but to us that term is inextricably linked with social justice and aviation safety as an exercise in prevention rather than just cure.
I would like to thank all our speakers and sponsors for making the event a reality, and contributing to a valuable, enthusiastic, and eye-opening day of aviation law and policy discussion.
Joseph Wheeler is Principal of the International Aerospace Law & Policy Group (IALPG)
The original article can be found here.
Comment by Joseph Wheeler, IALPG: MH17 Annex 13 Report released by Dutch Safety Board
Joseph Wheeler is Principal of the International Aerospace Law & Policy Group (IALPG)
The original article can be found here: http://www.ialpg.com/about-1/news/
13 October 2015: MH17 Annex 13 Report released by Dutch Safety Board
If anyone had any doubt that this much anticipated report would serve as a quasi-criminal dossier then the Dutch Safety Board (DSB) made it abundantly clear that it would not be, starting with the title it gave the MH17 report: “MH17 Crash”. There could be no doubt that this was an air safety investigation report with this controversial and somewhat offensive, in my view, characterisation of the events which unfolded over Ukraine on 17 July 2014.
In short, the report of 13 October 2015 is concerned with why the plane left controlled flight and struck the ground resulting in the death of all occupants – not exactly with who caused a weapon to be fired to accomplish that – just how, and considered reasons as to why that chain of events was permitted to happen.
Analysis in reports such as this, aligned with and facilitated by Annex 13 to the Chicago Convention is limited to examining contributing causes of the accident from an air safety perspective. Thus, those causes typically line up with suitable recommendations to prevent such incidents happening again in future rather than ascribing legal blame
Therefore, it is no surprise that the DSB report focuses on why MH17 should not have been allowed to fly through airspace which could have been closed to civil air traffic altogether, and arguably should have been so prohibited, rather than the much anticipated question of who or which entity caused the weapon to be fired on the aircraft at all. The report considers three simulations done (by Ukraine, Russia and the Dutch) to determine the likely area within which the BUK missile was fired at the aircraft, but falls short of ascribing responsibility to any particular country, group or individual for “pulling the trigger”.
The weapon of destruction
The DSB report confirms the West’s curiosity about the kind of projectile used to down the aircraft – a BUK missile is convincingly demonstrated to have been the fatal medium of destruction (with a warhead described as 9M314M). It is considered to have detonated to the front left (high) side of the cockpit sending hundreds of projectile bow tie and other oddly shaped shrapnel fragments into the skin of the aircraft primarily into the cockpit, killing the flight crew and causing the cockpit to break apart from the aircraft, leading to sudden depressurisation and the mercifully reasonably quick deaths of the occupants. The “crash” was characterised as unsurvivable.
The vexing question of conflict zones
A major theme of the report which is gratifying to have been examined in such detail is the question of civil aviation flight over armed conflict zones. In short, the DSB concluded that almost all operators flew over the dangerous part of Eastern Ukraine without sufficient consideration of the risks involved, and notwithstanding the NOTAMs issued by Ukraine restricting all traffic to increasingly higher altitudes.
Almost all operators flew over the combat zone with no thought that civil aviation was at risk. From 14-17 July 61 operators from 32 states flew above the area and on the day of the “crash” 160 flights operated above until airspace was closed following the tragedy. All operators undeniably considered civil aviation at cruise altitudes in this area were safe from risk.
Sixteen aircraft were shot down in the month before MH17, and Ukraine did not close their airspace when it was responsible for doing so given that there was evidently, in the eyes of the DSB, sufficient risk to justify such an exercise of the state’s sovereign (and thus unshared) power to do so.
The DSB continued that the risk to civil aviation was not adequately identified by ICAO or Ukraine or anyone else.
The clear recommendations about this by the DSB is that states involved in conflict need to put more effort into notifying airspace others about the risk of danger in certain locations; also, operators should be more transparent about the routes they take and the DSB would seek to see changes to regulations internationally to recognise how matters may be improved.
The launch location of the missile
This was considered by the Board and narrowed down to a small area in the east of Ukraine. Shared data with the international team and its own simulations ran by the Dutch and Russians indicate a converging and comparable area thought to have been where the missile was fired from – however, additional forensic work is required to determine launch area and that is for the criminal investigation, being outside the scope of the Annex 13 safety investigation.
Recommendations to ICAO
Overall the report is consistent with a safety investigation in that the DSB really had no choice but to focus on those contributing causes to the “accident” which lend themselves to recommendations to ICAO – ie Ukraine should have done more to control the risks of flying by in its airspace by way of NOTAM which identified the risks and/or closing the airspace altogether, and operators need to be more rigorous with their own risk assessments of where to fly. The airspace remained open for unclear reasons, potentially financial. It was not possible to make recommendations in relation to armed conflicts per se and hence there are no recommendations with respect to the pursuit of or use of weapons within armed conflicts.
The criminal report will take up the matter of the entity which pulled the trigger – that was outside the scope of this investigation.
The three recommendations thus are:
Level 1 – Airspace management in conflict zones
Given that the principle of sovereignty determines that each state is responsible for its own airspace, the DSB recommends thought be given to how better enticements can be given to states to manage their airspace more carefully, coincidental with greater international regulation of airspace by amending the Chicago Convention and its underlying standards and recommended practices to clarify when airspace should be closed.
The flipside to this recommendation betrays a reason why the characterisation of the non closure of Ukrainian airspace on or before 17 July 2014 is not convincing – Art 9 of the Convention permits states to prohibit access to their airspace for reasons of military necessity or public safety (uniformly to aircraft of all states), but, importantly, “[s]uch prohibited areas shall be of reasonable extent and location so as not to interfere unnecessarily with air navigation”. That is an important qualifier and arguably one which makes the actions of Ukraine (legally) reasonable in the circumstances (ie, closing certain altitudes off from civil air traffic, rather than its entire airspace).
In addition, the DSB presents an analysis of the airspace closures or restrictions in other conflict zones around the world demonstrating that airspace restrictions are the usual international practice. This is a finding which suggests against any conclusive indication of airspace closure by Ukraine being the “silver bullet” indirectly suggested by the DSB to have been something which would have prevented the attack, or at least something which was solely to blame.
In a somewhat simplistic characterisation of what may be achievable on this front through and within ICAO internationally the DSB calls for amendments to the Chicago Convention. While it is the case that amendments have been made to the Convention previously (including in relation to the shooting down of civil aircraft with the addition of Article 3 bis, more on which is below) such amendments take a significant amount of time (up to a decade or more). Also, any system which devolves control of sovereign airspace to an external body (even the international civil aviation regulator, ICAO) would necessitate some sharing or informed sharing of sovereignty by states with another actor(s) by virtue of legislating a responsibility to give out sensitive information to other states which the relevant state may or may not even have.
Background on legal concept of sovereignty in international air law
The concept of sovereignty underpins international civil aviation and has since the inception of the Chicago Convention in 1944 and the creation of ICAO at the same time. Article 1 of the Convention states:
The contracting states recognise that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory.
It is such an important concept that even in areas such as the economic and practical exchange of “rights to fly” by and for airlines between countries, there has been no concluded multilateral solution for these non-controversial, though valuable, rights to be exchanged. It is at best wishful thinking to think that a multilateral solution could be found under the auspices of ICAO for multilateral ceding of sovereignty by all states to ICAO to in some way proactively manage airspace for the purpose of preventing civil flights traversing conflict zones. Even the concept of using ICAO as a clearing house for information from states about conflicts (already being trialled in its Conflict Zone Information Repository website since April 2015) is of limited practical usage.
By way of background Art 3 bis came to pass on 10 May 1984, when ICAO adopted a legal instrument which purported to regulate the law in this area (the Protocol relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International Civil Aviation [Article 3bis]). It entered force on 1 October 1998. This action followed the events of the early 1980s in which unintentional straying into national airspace by certain civilian airliners resulted in military force being used against them (eg, the downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 “KE007”). ICAO nations took action to codify the customary international law which already prohibited such uses of force except in exceptional circumstances.
The new protocol was based on a provision in the United Nations Charter and customary principles which prohibit “recourse to the use of force in international relations between States”. In summary, Article 3bis is declaratory in nature and codifies the:
- obligation of States to refrain from resorting to the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight;
- obligation, in the case of interception, not to endanger the lives of persons on board and the safety of aircraft; and
- right of States to require landing of aircraft in their airspace (without authority) at a designated airport, if there are reasonable grounds to conclude that it is being used for any purpose inconsistent with the aims of the Convention.
The shooting down of flight MH17, whether by surface to air missile, and no matter by whom, constitutes a breach of Article 3bis if it was performed by a State actor.
Level 2: Risk assessment
The second recommendation concerns the view of air operators (airlines) and recognises, quite fairly that these should not take it for granted that “open” airspace is “safe”. Improving airlines’ access to information is needed, and yet is also fraught with difficulty given the sensitivity of military information in many cases. As well as availability of threat information the DSB also recommends ICAO and IATA take steps to facilitate better airline risk assessments of where they should fly – by encouraging states to make information they have available in a timely way, and for IATA, to make their own audits include an assessment of an airline’s risk assessment protocols.
The recommendations about sharing information on a platform which promotes exchange of good practice about such risk assessments is in principal positive, as is the Conflict Zone Information Repository website already in place. The practical issue with such mechanisms is take up across the globe and reliability of the information. In my view there is no substitute for an airline’s own assessment informed by whatever it deems necessary to make its decision on where to fly, using especially public information which is clear and widely available and telling about the risks to aviation including to Malaysia Airlines which cannot argue it was unaware of the downing of aircraft in Ukraine in the week and months prior to MH17 traversing that airspace.
ICAO promulgated its first new Annex to the Chicago Convention in late 2013 (on safety risk management – putting together provisions from other annexes about safety risk assessment as a concept and practical tool). It is arguably already incumbent on airlines to be overseen by their states of registry in terms of risk assessments and to include whatever factors are relevant to determining where and when each flight should plan its route.
Level 3: Operator accountability
This particular recommendation perhaps holds the most promise because it focuses more on the practical rationales for commercial aviation rather than regulation which impact on how disparate and sensitive information is shared amongst perhaps conflicting governments and competing private entities (airlines).
The one thing which will prevent airlines flying through combat zones and taking unnecessary or marginal risks is commercial imperative.
If, as the DSB recommends, IATA encourages airlines to be publicly accountable for the routes it chooses then potential passengers will be able to safeguard their own decisions on where to fly by deciding with whom they will fly. This would inevitably mean that riskier carriers would be pushed out of the aviation market, leaving a positive and lasting impact on air safety than legal or regulatory change alone could never achieve.
Conclusions for liability?
The liability of the airline involved in this case is uncontroversial and has been the subject of previous comment. International law dictates the liability of the carrier as strict in relation to compensating families for the loss of their loved ones. The calculation of damages is a complex question and one which cannot be discussed in detail now as the process is ongoing for passengers’ families.
However, the liability of the entity (or entities, be they states or otherwise) which contributed to the destruction of the aircraft is certainly still an issue at large. The DSB report would tend to suggest some responsibility lies with Ukraine but my view would be that that assertion is overly simplistic and denies the reality of the practical context in which aviation decisions are made to control airspace.
It may seem like an example from left field but the world will recall the debacle which resulted from closures of airspace following the Icelandic volcano eruption in 2010. The solution of that dilemma for the future was the creation of operator guidelines for risk assessment leaving the ultimate decision on where and when operators would fly or risk flying near to volcanic ash to airlines themselves – it was a commercial reality that regulation at international level was resisted in favour of an industry solution that left something which could so affect the primary driver of airlines (profitability) in their own hands.
Thus, it is suggested that the third recommendation by the DSB will be the one which prompts airlines to make their risk assessments more carefully than any changes to international standards and recommended practices through ICAO rule changes. Passengers vote with their airfares – and those which take ostensibly dangerous risks with passenger lives will fail to flourish post MH17.
Submissions to Australia’s Aviation Safety Regulation Review
Submissions made by the Australian Lawyers Alliance and the Aviation Law Department of Shine Lawyers can be found below.
In brief, the Australian Lawyers Alliance recommended that the Panel should advise Government that:
1. Guidance material on CASA’s enforcement policy which guides CASA decision makers should be legally binding and itself enforceable under an Ombudsman-type arrangement akin to the Aircraft Noise Ombudsman.
2. Strict adherence to AAT expert evidence guidelines and procedural rules be demanded of all litigants in aviation administrative matters (both CASA and represented applicants).
3. Australia’s fatigue risk management system rules should be further developed by CASA in light of the merits of the US FAA approach which came into effect on 14 January 2014.
4. Australian aviation drug and alcohol management (DAMP) policy should be clarified by adding an “Objects” section to either Part 99 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (Cth), or Part IV of the Civil Aviation Act 1988 (Cth), to reflect Parliament’s intention that DAMP rules operate to minimise harm in aviation, not punish.
5. In light of the Pel-Air and Transair air disasters, Australia should update its State Safety Program in recognition and reflection of Australia’s adherence to safety management standards set out in Annex 19 to the Chicago Convention which entered force on 14 November 2013, to assure the public of confidence in future regulator oversight and surveillance of operators.
6. CASA should undertake as a priority, a review of the need for regulations on cockpit automation and adapt and implement relevant recommendations of the FAA in its comprehensive September 2013 report on this subject including, in particular, a proposed requirement for Australian AOC holders to create explicit flight path management policies.
Australian Lawyers Alliance_ASRR Submission
In turn, Shine Lawyers recommended to the ASRR Panel that it should advise the Government to:
1. Extend the concession Commonwealth employees travelling on Commonwealth business enjoy under Part III of the Air Accidents (Commonwealth Government Liability) Act 1963 (Cth) (AACL Act) to all Australians, or repeal Part III of the AACL Act; or
2. Review the AACL Act’s consistency with the policy behind the Civil Aviation (Carriers’ Liability) Act 1959 (Cth) (CACL Act), and update the AACL Act to reflect its original intent as expressed by Parliament in 1963; and
3. Remove all references to the term “personal injury” in s.12 of the AACL Act (or return that term to the wording of the CACL Act for consistency); and
4. Legislate for the imposition of adherence to the IATA (or some other suitable) intercarrier agreement as a condition for non-Australian airlines which service Australia (as recommended at Preliminary Finding 4 of the 2009 DOIRD Discussion Paper).
Shine Lawyers_ASRR Submission
AAT restores right to fly for pilot who was victim of assault
The Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT) recently set aside the decision of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) to cancel the medical certificates of a Queensland commercial pilot who had suffered a fractured skull, when he was assaulted while out with friends in March 2013: Daniel Bolton and Civil Aviation Safety Authority  AATA 941 (23 December 2013).
AAT restores right to fly for pilot
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Who owns the airspace? The new Chinese “ADIZ” and what it means
The recent imposition of an “air defence identification zone” (ADIZ) by China over an area of the East China Sea has prompted international alarm and confusion. ADIZs are plentiful the world over even though they’re not strictly expected or founded in international air law or the law of the sea. However, the Chinese ADIZ is slightly different in that it purports to apply to all aircraft in its vicinity, rather than just those intending to fly into Chinese territorial airspace. It is, arguably, being used to extend the character of territorial sovereignty to a disputed chain of islands which is disputed with Japan – a country which also covers the islands with a (traditional) ADIZ – rather than serve as an early warning system for legitimate defence purposes.
This has prompted the linked article which sets out some of the potential dangers to civilian aviation of such classes of airspace in times of political tension and unrest, and describes cases which have, through a combination of confusion, tensions, and innocent mix-up, resulted in military force being used against airliners, killing innocent passengers and crew members. The article also seeks to contextualise the position of ADIZs more broadly in international law and examines dispute resolutions mechanisms which could be brought to bear by members of the International Civil Aviation Organisation under the International Convention on Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) in addition to diplomacy.
The article is not intended to advance any particular political view and is merely presented to recall for all involved the lessons which have been learned in the last few decades in relation to disputed or specially demarcated areas of airspace.
The new Chinese ADIZ and what it means
Sopwith Named Lecture at the Royal Aeronautical Society
On 17 July 2013 the Royal Aeronautical Society held its annual Sopwith Named Lecture. Mr Craig Kreeger, CEO, Virgin Atlantic delivered this occasional lecture which was established in 1990 to honour Sir Thomas Sopwith CBE, Hon FRAeS. Mr Kreeger explained the current activities planned by Virgin Atlantic Airways and discussed some of the future opportunities and challenges he and his airline are facing. Arpad has kindly provided a short summary of the Lecture.
Sopwith Named Lecture
Summaries of Recent Lectures at the Royal Aeronautical Society
On 6 November 2013, one of our national editors, Arpad Szakal, attended a lecture by Richard Deakin, CEO of NATS. The lecture was held at the Royal Aeronautical Society in honour of Lord Brabazon of Tara. The main theme of Richard’s talk was the Single European Sky initiative.
On 24 July 2013, Arpad attended another lecture at the Royal Aeronautical Society, this time in honour of Major Kenneth Beaumont. The lecture was given by Tony Tyler, Director General and CEO of IATA. Tony highlighted some of the challenges facing the aviation industry and also discussed regulations dealing with passenger rights.
ETS Clocks Go Back
A deal may have been struck on combating aviation emissions at ICAO’s general assembly in Montreal, but the issue remains divisive. A number of airline bodies have expressed concerns at Europe’s possible reimposition of its controversial Emissions Trading System on airlines operating outside the European Union.
ETS clocks go back
Summary of EAC & IIASL Conference on the Revision of Regulation 261/2004
One of our national editors, Arpad Szakal, travelled to Brussels last week to attend the EAC and IIASL Conference on the Revision of EU Regulation 261/2004. Arpad has kindly prepared a summary of the Conference.
Reg 261-2004 Conference Note
Further information on the Conference, including the conference agenda, can be found on our events page.
Global Airline Alliances – A Competition Law Perspective
Members of the global alliances coordinate on a multilateral basis to create the largest possible worldwide joint network. The global alliance model generally applies to the entirety of member airlines’ networks and offers a much wider scope for revenue synergies. While a ”basic” level of cooperation is required by members of a global alliance – generally involving standard code-share agreements, cooperation on FFP and lounge access – some alliance members seek higher levels of cooperation to enhance the benefits of the alliance.
Global Airline Alliances – A competition law perspective
Air Carrier’s Liability in Cases of Delay
Both the Warsaw and the Montreal Conventions address the liability of carriers for delay, however, due to Article 19’s equivocal character, the application of the article has proved to be far from unproblematic in practice. This contribution focuses on the carrier’s liability in cases of delay and highlights the challenges of the unification of Private International Air Law taking into account the jurisprudence that has interpreted Article 19’s ambiguous terms such as ‘delay’, ‘carriage by air’ and ‘damage’.
Air Carrier’s Liability in Cases of Delay
Liability Aspects of Volcanic Ash
The unprecedented chaos in the European and global air traffic caused by the ash cloud from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull resulted in long delays and cancellation of flights all over Europe. This article discusses the issue of air carrier liability to passengers and outlines the effects of the Montreal Convention 1999 and EU Regulation 261/2004. The essay also considers whether a State is liable to compensate an airline for loss of revenue as a result of the prolonged closure of airspace.
Liability Aspects of Volcanic Ash
International Airline Alliances
Today’s extremely competitive market environment makes it almost impossible for any company to survive without partners. As a result of globalization and increased competition the world’s airlines are forced to unite their strength and resources by way of entering into strategic airline alliances. Alliances promote co-operation in a broad scale of commercial and operational areas, thereby enabling competitors to become each other’s strategic business partners. Such co-operations include schedules, marketing, frequent flyer programs and code-sharing.
International Airline Alliances
Freedoms of the Air Explained
The freedoms of the air are a set of commercial aviation rights granting a country’s airline the privilege to enter and land in another country’s airspace, formulated as a result of disagreements over the extent of aviation liberalization in the Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944, known as the Chicago Convention.
Freedoms of the Air Explained
According to the European Commission, the European commercial aviation industry is one of the most dynamic and best performing parts of the EU economy. Whilst the importance of the aviation sector is recognised, there is concern to regulate aircraft noise. Although commercial aircraft have become 75% less noisy over the last 30 years, the growing amount of air traffic means that many people living around some of Europe’s busiest airports are still exposed to high noise levels. This paper explores the existing international, European as well as national (UK) regulatory regime which govern aircraft noise.
Aircraft Noise – A Regulatory Overview
Interline and code-share agreements
The most fundamental part of the industry framework relates to interlining, i.e. sales by one carrier of journeys involving another carrier. Code-sharing amongst air carriers became popular in the United States following the deregulation of the domestic air travel market at the end of the 1970s. In Europe, code-sharing similarly became more popular following EU deregulation in 1993.
Interline and code-share agreements
The European Commission’s Proposal to Amend EU Reg 261/2004
On 13 March 2013 the European Commission published its proposal to amend Regulation 261/2004 on air passenger rights. In the context of continuous industry lobbying and the progression of the Commission’s proposal through the European Union’s legislative procedure, this contribution examines some of the key areas of concern for the aviation industry.
Proposed Revision of Regulation 261-2004